Its transmission is fecal-oral, by contact between individuals or with food or water contaminated with the virus.
The best way to prevent the disease is by improving hygiene and sanitation, such as:
Washing hands after using the toilet, changing diapers and before eating or preparing food;
Wash foods that are eaten raw well, using treated, chlorinated or boiled water, leaving them to soak for 30 minutes;
Cook foods thoroughly before eating, especially seafood and pork;
Properly wash dishes, glasses, cutlery and baby bottles;
Do not bathe or play near creeks, streams, fountains, flooded areas or near open sewage;
Avoid building septic tanks near wells and river sources, to avoid leaks into the water table that feeds the well. A minimum distance of 15 meters should be kept between the well and dry septic tanks and 45 meters from other sources of contamination, such as pig pens, stables, a surface water sewer, storm drains among others;
Should there be a patient with hepatitis A at home, use sodium hypochlorite 2.5% or bleach when cleaning the bathroom;
In the case of day care centers, preschools, cafeterias, restaurants and closed offices, adopt strict hygiene measures, such as the disinfection of objects, benches and floor using sodium hypochlorite 2.5% or bleach.
The diagnosis is made by blood test, using a search for anti-HAV antibodies. After confirmation, the healthcare professional will indicate the most appropriate treatment according to the patient's health. The disease is completely curable as long as the patient properly follows all the medical recommendations. In most cases, hepatitis A is a benign disease. It causes acute liver failure and can be fatal in less than 1% of cases.
Caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis type B is an infectious disease. As HBV is present in blood, semen and breast milk, Hepatitis B is considered a sexually transmitted disease. Among the causes of transmission are:
Sex without a condom with an infected person, from an infected mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding, sharing materials during drug use (syringes, needles, pipes), sharing toiletries (shaving razors , toothbrushes, nail clippers or other objects that pierce or cut) unsterilized tattoo and body piercing equipment, transfusion of contaminated blood.
Most cases of Hepatitis B show no symptoms. But the most common are fatigue, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellow skin and eyes, dark urine and pale stools. These signals usually appear one to six months after infection. As viral hepatitis is a silent disease, regularly consult a doctor and get tested. Hepatitis B can develop in two forms, acute and chronic. The acute infection is when the duration is short. Health professionals considered it chronic when the illness lasts more than six months. The risk of the disease becoming chronic depends upon the age at which infection occurs. Children are the most affected. Of those of than one year of age, this risk is 90%; between 1 and 5 years it varies from 20% to 50%. In adults, the rate drops to 5% to 10%.
The diagnosis of hepatitis B is done by a specific blood test. After the positive result, the doctor will suggest the appropriate treatment. In addition to medications (when necessary), a cut in the consumption of alcohol for at least six months is recommended and as well as taking medicines to relieve symptoms such as vomiting and fever.
Avoiding the disease is very easy. Just take three doses of the vaccine, use condoms in all sexual relations and under no circumstances share personal items such as shaving razors, toothbrushes, manicure and pedicure tools, equipment for drug use, tattooing and body piercing. The condom is available from public health authorities. If you do not know where to get condoms, in Brazil you can call the Health Hotline (136). In addition, all pregnant women need to undertake a prenatal program and get tested to detect hepatitis, AIDS and syphilis. This care is essential to prevent mother-to-child transmission. If the diagnosis is positive, you must follow all medical recommendations, including on the type of birth and breastfeeding.
Currently, the Brazilian Health System provides free vaccine against Hepatitis B in any health facility. But it's necessary:
To be up to 49 years, 11 months and 29 days (see technical notes 01/2012, 89/2010 and 02/2013);
Or from one of the most vulnerable groups (regardless of age) - pregnant women, health workers, firefighters, police officers, manicurist, indigenous populations, blood donors, gays, lesbians, transvestites and transsexuals, sex workers, drug users, STI patients (see full list).
Immunization is only effective when taking three doses with an interval of one month between the first and second dose and six months between the first and third dose.
Among the causes of transmission are:
Sharing any of the following: equipment for drug use (syringes, needles, pipes, etc.), toiletries (razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers or other objects that pierce or cut) or tools for tattoo and piercings;
From infected mother to child during pregnancy (rare);
Sex without a condom with an infected person (rarer):
Sexual transmission of HCV among heterosexual partners is very uncommon, especially in monogamous couples. Therefore, Hepatitis C is not a sexually transmitted disease (STD); but among men who have sex with men (MSM) there is a significantly higher risk of HCV transmission.
The appearance of symptoms in individuals with acute hepatitis C is very rare. However, what can show up most are fatigue, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellow skin and eyes, dark urine and pale stools. Because it is a silent disease, it is important to consult with a doctor regularly and do the routine tests that detect all forms of hepatitis. Early diagnosis of hepatitis enhances the effectiveness of treatment. For Brazilian patients there are SUS service centers in all states of the country that provide treatment for Hepatitis C. Verify the health center nearest to you.
When the HCV infection persists for more than six months, which is common in 80% of cases, this is classed as a progression to chronic form. About 20% of chronically infected HCV may lead to liver cirrhosis and approximately 1% to 5% to liver cancer. The treatment of Hepatitis C virus depends on the type (genotype) and the degree of liver scarring (fibrosis). For this, carry out specific tests is required, such as liver biopsy on patients without clinical evidence of cirrhosis and molecular biology tests.
In addition, all pregnant women need to have prenatal examinations to detect hepatitis B and C, AIDS and syphilis. This care is essential to prevent mother-to-child transmission. In case of a positive result, it is necessary to follow all medical recommendations, including on the type of delivery and breastfeeding (cracks in the mother's womb can allow the passage of blood).
The infection caused by the virus of Hepatitis D (HDV) occurs only in patients infected with Hepatitis B. In patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus, co-infection with HDV accelerates the progression of the chronic disease. Vaccination against Hepatitis B also protects people from Hepatitis D.
Rare in Brazil and common in Asia and Africa, Hepatitis type E is a viral infectious disease caused by the HEV virus. Its transmission is fecal-oral, by contact between individuals or by through the ingestion food or water contaminated with the virus. Just as with the other variants of the disease there are almost no visible symptoms. However, the most common are fatigue, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellow skin and eyes, dark urine and pale stools. These signals will usually appear 15 to 60 days after infection.
The diagnosis is made by blood test through searching for anti-HEV antibodies. In most cases, the disease does not require treatment, just abstention from the consumption of alcoholic beverages and a rest and a low-fat diet are recommended. Hospital admission is only indicated in patients with a more severe medical situation, especially pregnant women.
Improving the conditions of hygiene and a better control of sanitation are the best forms of preventing the occurrence of this virus.
Recent reports have shown that the identification of Hepatitis F (VHF) cannot be confirmed, therefore this type of Hepatitis can be disregarded.
Hepatitis G (HGV), also known as GBV-C, is transmitted through blood, being common among intravenous drug users and patients who received blood transfusions.
The G virus can also be transmitted during pregnancy and sexual intercourse. It is frequently found in co-infection with other viruses, such as Hepatitis C (HCV), B (HBV) and AIDS (HIV).